slavery and religion in the antebellum south

In a collection of essays, Masters and Slaves in the House of the Lord: Race and Religion in the American South, the focus is on the slave communities’ adaptation of Christianity. Some examples include hoodoo doctors giving charms to run away,ix root chewingx or walking backwards and throwing dirt over the left shoulder to avoid whipping,xi and bewitching the master’s wife to feel the whipping.xii He also contended that black churches had their own traits: the music, songs, and the spontaneous dance-rhythm.xiii Moreover, learning the bible by singing (because slaves were not taught to read or write), and singing spirituals to let fellow slaves know of a religious meeting at nightxiv were also noted by Puckett as traits of the slaves’ agency. Sexual Relations Between Elite White Women and Enslaved Men in the Antebellum South: A Socio-Historical... Bonds of Slavery and Bonds of Love: Investigating the Role of African-American Families and Marital Unions in the Struggle Against Slavery, The Concept of Property and Ownership in the Antebellum American South: Slaves, Slaveholders, Theft, Conflict and the Law, Sexual Relations Between Elite White Women and Enslaved Men in the Antebellum South: A Socio-Historical Analysis, Echoes of W.E.B. In the 1970s, the focus changed, as Albert Raboteau’s analysis of slave religion demonstrates. However, by 1820, political and economic pressure on the South placed a wedge between the North and South. Project MUSE® The role of personal property in our lives is one that to a very great extent we take for granted. About The Journal | Submissions Martha Tomhave Blauvelt, Published By: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Although these two orga-nizations had been at work among Southerners prior to the American Revo-lution, both made their greatest gains after 1800. The original work is not included in the purchase of this review. Reviews in American History Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures, Chinese Women and Christianity in the Late Imperial Era, Gender-Specific Language of the Major Prophets in The Hebrew Bible: The Case of the First and Second Isaiah, Byzantine and Russian Influences in Andrei Rublev's Art, Creating Life Within the Confines of Slavery: Comparing Northrup's Memoir. “Religion and Slavery – The Case of the American South.” Slavery, Religion and Reform – Essays in Memory of Roger Anstey. The Archaeology of African-American Slave Religion in the Antebellum South. The long-awaited reissue of a classic study of African American history and religion Disclaimer: content on this website is for informational purposes only. "Slavery and Religion in the Antebellum South." MUSE delivers outstanding results to the scholarly community by maximizing revenues for publishers, providing value to libraries, and enabling access for scholars worldwide. Slavery and Religion in the Antebellum South. 2011. One of the largest publishers in the United States, the Johns Hopkins University Press combines traditional books and journals publishing units with cutting-edge service divisions that sustain diversity and independence among nonprofit, scholarly publishers, societies, and associations. ... about slave religion. All Rights Reserved. Such beliefs as the superstitions related to death (e.g., “do not count carriages in a funeral procession”),iii most positive control signs (e.g., finding lost things by various meansiv, divining your future matev), or prophetic signs and omens (e.g., black cats are bad signsvi) are European in origin, according to Puckett. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3 (01), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=372, BASU-ZHARKU, I. O. This also offered slaves an opportunity to exert leadership and develop their ministry skills, although many times black churches were under white supervision and representation (e.g., the Poindexter code required a white preacher or two whites to attend any Black church and by the 1830s no free or slave black could preach).xxviii, Other forms of resistance to the control of slave-owners were related to religion, as well. Finally, by 2004, when Dorothea S. Ruiz’s book, Amazing Grace: African American Grandmothers as caregivers and Conveyors of Traditional Values, appears, the approach to slave religion is not only free of bias but also gendered. 5 Mark A. Noll, “The ible and Slavery,” in Religion and the American Civil War, ed. Later on, in the 1970s and 1980s these traditions are considered as actually having been weak among the Southern slaves, replaced by Christianity, which, however, was adapted by the slaves according to their needs. Slavery and Religion in the Antebellum South. Patricia Morton, Discovering the Women in Slavery: Emancipating Perspectives on the American Past (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996): 208. Retrospective essays examining landmark works by "When I can read my title clear": literacy, slavery, and religion in the antebellum South User Review - Not Available - Book Verdict. It was through storytelling that many ancient cultures preserved and passed... During World War II, the black press and several prominent black leaders called for a “Double V” victory against fascism abroad and against Jim Crow at home. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=372. Thus, as we follow this time trajectory one can see that from the 1920s to the 1960s, the views about slaves’ religion were very biased and Eurocentric, but even then, the forms of resistance to slave-owners’ control through religion were quite obvious. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Everyday low prices and free delivery on … 416 pages Paperback 5-5/16 x 8 inches In Stock. Slavery was integral to the agricultural economies of the South, and thus to the nation’s prosperity, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. $34.95 cloth. Although Puckett exhibits a very Euro-centric and racist bias in his pages, there are, in his writing, hints of how slaves used religion to resist slavery. Illustrative to this were the biracial churches, in which slaves could not only show their humanity but also carve out their own space, in response to the segregation policies. Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South. In addition, in his view, blacks emulated white culture in general, adopting Christianity but keeping the African tendency of concentrating on the relationship between man and God, with no heavy accent on morality. How do perceptions of the equality and the achievability of the American Dream among educated black Americans correlate with the dominant discourse on the subject? Thus, slaves accepted Christianity not because their masters imposed it on them, but because it was a trend in Africa, from where they had come, and some refused to adopt it because in Africa they had adopted Islam.xv Also, Christianity was adapted and in some cases converged with African beliefs.xvi One example would be the religious dancing and shouting, which originated in the African spirit possessions but now represented Christian ecstatic experiences.xvii In addition, religion compensated for the hard life of slavery and helped in the resistance of slaves to it.xviii The latter example stands for resistance as well, since it empowered slaves to ask for the back-rails on seats to be removed so that they could pray.xix Their prayers were also symbols of resistance (e.g., they prayed for freedom, they prayed even when they were forbidden to, and they refused to pray for the Confederacy, when their masters ordered them to),xx and spirituals were shouted, dramatized, giving slaves strength, meaning and hope.xxi Despite the white ministers’ trying to label these traditions as sins, African-Americans kept them alive.xxii Moreover, slaves accused their masters through other whites, formed Christian fellowships, organized their own churches (African Baptist Churches),xxiii and had their own black preachers, who obtained the license to preach and were very eloquent, thus proving the abilities of blacks.xxiv These considerations of Raboteau are not Euro-centric anymore and focus on the slaves’ agency-something that was denied to them in most of Puckett’s pages. However, as one goes into the 1970s and 1980s, the focus fell more on the way slaves used religion to cope with slavery by adapting Christianity to their own needs, and thus on slaves’ agency. Stephanie Buzzard Ms. Renae Newhouse WRD 110-020 November 4, 2011 Slavery in the Antebellum South Slavery was a popular practice in the South during the Civil War Era. Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Pantheon, 1974); Albert Raboteau, Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978). The Gentlemen Theologians: American Theology in Southern Culture, 1795-1860. When Slavery Was Called Freedom: Evangelicalism, Proslavery, and the Causes of the Civil War. Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of Inquiries Journal or Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates. intellectual history, and cultural history. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Being the ones to impart the traditions and values to the young generation, through storytelling, they were the ones who set the standard for suitable behavior-all this, while withstanding the brutality of slavery and empowering their families and fellow slaves. Slave Religion in the Antebellum South Published: January 2000 Share Icon Share. As the cotton culture spread westward, slavery strengthened its hold on the South. 6 ibid., 43. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1978. x + 262 pp. American South, 1740-1870 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988): 38-42. ISBN: 9780195174120. Slaves' religious songs. Being one of the first Methodists, slave women found meaning and hope in religion in times of sickness and death,xxxiii but also in such concepts as the sacredness of motherhood and personhood,xxxiv and in the principles upheld by the Methodists (e.g., humility, piety, charity, sobriety, love, simplicity), all in contrast to the property, status and wealth values of slave-owners.xxxv This, in itself was a way of resistance. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999. xii + 305 pp. xv.) Review by: 2000. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 3. history, law, political history and philosophy, religion, social history, Albert J. Raboteau. Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=372, Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. Many slaves turned to religion for inspiration and solace. Dorothy S. Ruiz, Amazing Grace: African American Grandmothers as caregivers and Conveyors of Traditional Values (Westport: Praeger, 2004): 1-3. option. Download books for free. Some practiced African religions, including Islam, others practiced Christianity. Request Permissions. Slave Religion: The ''Invisible Institution'' in the Antebellum South | Albert J. Raboteau | download | Z-Library. Learn more | Blog | Submit. This research... Afro-Pessimism forwards a crucially important foundation with which anyone concerned with forming Black resistance strategy should navigate. Patricia Morton focused on slave women, their common images of Jezebels and Mammys, their lack of protection in front of hard labor, and their lack of being respected as women and mothers. Retail Price to Students: $19.99. Note: This article is a review of another work, such as a book, film, musical composition, etc. Cite Icon Cite. Facebook; Twitter; Email; Tools Icon Tools. Although the bodies of the slaves were suffering, their souls were saved through conversion to Christianity. This trend of focusing on the slaves’ agency continued in the next decade. Buy Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South Updated by Raboteau, Albert J. Purchase this issue for $44.00 USD. Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Ante-bellum South. (2011). Updated Edition. A Descriptive Character Analysis of Olivia Pope, Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, The Double Victory Campaign and the Black Press: A Conservative Approach to 'Victory' at Home and Abroad. By 1804, most Northern states abolished slavery, and the federal government prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory and banned the external slave trade, spurred by abolition movements that denounced slavery as sinful and antithetical to the principles of the nation. This article investigates the significance that families and partnerships played in fostering the emotional support necessary to sustain enslaved peoples throughout the onslaught... A close scrutiny through a text-based analysis of Frederick Douglass’ Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself (1845), would reveal, unquestionably, that this narrative reflects the condition of the... What is the meaning of the American Dream for educated black Americans? Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3.01 (2011). ISSN: 2153-5760. The division also manages membership services for more than 50 scholarly and professional associations and societies. Much rarer were sexual relations... Resistance to oppression is often found in the most unlikely of places. When it came to the institution of slavery, Southern Christians believed that since “slavery was a political institution,” their only duty was to, as the Presbyterian synods of South Carolina and Georgia affirmed, “inculcate the duties of master and slave, and to use lawful and spiritual means to have all, both bond and free, to become one in Christ by faith.” Go to Table Twenty-five years after its original publication, Slave Religion remains a classic in the study of African American history and religion. Slave trading was a lucrative business, but it sometimes led to the breakup of slave … Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 3(01). For many decades, scholars have debated the importance of religion in helping slaves cope with the horrible experience of slavery in the antebellum South. Southerners in the antebellum period. xxxiii.) Citation. This study examined if main character Olivia Pope is a reflection of popular AfricanAmerican female stereotypes in television... People love a good story. Randall M. Miller et al. Additionally, slavery in the crusades was not done for the same financial gain that slavery in the antebellum south was. SLAVES AND GENTLEMEN: RELIGION IN THE ANTEBELLUM SOUTH Martha Tomhave Blauvelt E. Brooks Holifield. (ISBN: 9780195174137) from Amazon's Book Store. Albert J. Raboteau. of Contents. © 2020 Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse LLC. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1926. And yet it was just about to undergo a profound change that would make it the leading factor of the economy of the antebellum (“before the war”) South, the period falling roughly between 1810 and the American Civil War (1861–65). Books Finally, in the 1990s and 2000s, in addition to a complete departure form the Euro-centric approach, a gendered approach was applied to the analysis of slaves’ religion, so that slave women, and later older slave women, received the credit for upholding and perpetuating religious practices and beliefs. Religion Continued from page 1: page 1 | 2: As late as 1800 most slaves in the U.S. had not been converted to Christianity. This they did through their challenges to such images as the Jezebel and Mammy, through teaching their children religious and moral values, and through maintaining a good psychological standing and an empowerment through prayer of the community, thus demonstrating the humanity and dignity of slaves. Eds. Thus, he contended, cursing, drinking, adultery, theft, and lying were not considered big sins by most slaves.vii However, Puckett contended that Voodoo and conjuration might be of African origin, but even in this case some beliefs were probably coming from European sources.viii. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002. Grandmothers were instrumental as caregivers and nurturers in the extended family network. Resistance to oppression is often found in the most unlikely of places. xl.) Albert J. Raboteau. Soon after the end of the Civil War, a collection of 136 religious and secular songs of enslaved African Americans was published as Slave Songs of the United States, compiled primarily by three white northerners who had gone to the South Carolina sea islands in 1862-63 to work with recently freed African Americans. With warehouses on three continents, worldwide sales representation, and a robust digital publishing program, the Books Division connects Hopkins authors to scholars, experts, and educational and research institutions around the world. The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. Du Bois' Double-Consciousness in the, The American Dream: Discourses of Equality and Achievability for Black Americans, Addressing Shortcomings in Afro-Pessimism, Do African-American Female Stereotypes Still Exist in Television? major historians are also regularly featured. American history—reviews that are far superior to those found in Publication Date - October 2004. The major religious groups in the South during the first half of the 19th century were the Methodist and Baptist churches. "Slave Religion in the Antebellum South", African American Religious History: A Documentary Witness, Milton C. Sernett. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. 7 Mitchell Snay, Gospel of Disunion: Religion and Separatism in the Antebellum South (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 54. It was “freedom, rather than slavery, [that] proved the greatest force … This item is part of JSTOR collection Find books When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven slave states broke away to … Thus, slaves and masters were recorded separated or together, according to the whims of the church clerk, sometimes they were baptized together ,xxv the death of slaves was faithfully recorded, and baptisms and licensing of black preachers gave them a positive sense of self.xxvi Nonetheless, because some churches did not allow slaves to attend unless they had their master’s permission, slaves had to stay in separate pews or galleries, and were not always extended the right hand of fellowship or even called “Brother” or “Sister,” slaves built their own community and Christian fellowships, by worshipping in their quarters, at night, and praying for freedom.xxvii Moreover, independent Protestant Black churches arose from the dissatisfaction of slaves and free Blacks with the white community and preachers (e.g., preaching about servants having to be obedient, but masters still maltreated them). John Boles and Donald Mathews, Religion in the Old South (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977). Literacy meant liberation of mind and soul and sometimes even person. Religion also provided them with the opportunity to gain some education, as Methodist preachers often encouraged owners to teach slaves to read .xxxviii  One final and crucial role that religion played in the lives of slave women (and fueled their resistance to slavery) was to help them find a sense of sisterhood, through such things as being able to meet in church, communally helping the church, nursing the ill, and taking care of the children. Permissions. Albert J. Raboteau, retired Princeton University Professor of Religion, wrote an exceptional book on the religious lives of African American slaves before the Civil War. However, the way they treated the subject differs and the conclusions they reached are varied. There is ample evidence of sexual relations, from rapes to what appear to be relatively symbiotic romantic partnerships, between white slave masters and black women in the Antebellum South. Boles, John B., ed. Puckett, Newbell N. The Magic and Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. © 1979 The Johns Hopkins University Press With critically acclaimed titles in history, science, higher education, consumer health, humanities, classics, and public health, the Books Division publishes 150 new books each year and maintains a backlist in excess of 3,000 titles. 2011. Albert J. Raboteau originally wrote 'Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South' as an expansion and derivation of his doctoral dissertation, little expecting it to become a classic. The ways in which slaves adapted Christianity to their own needs is emphasized, and the slaves’ agency becomes more pronounced. For this reason, they had a very high standing in the slave society and family.xl Through this role older slave women taught slave children the scriptures, Negro spirituals, prayers, and hymns, but they also taught them about the power of God, and social and spiritual values: self-respect, how to live a good life, the importance of giving back to the community, of serving God, of the need of women to take care of themselves.xli This ensured not only a good psychological standing for the slave community but fought against the objectification of slave women as Jezebels and Mammy’s and, in general, proved the humanity of the slaves. Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988. Notes and indexes. Select a purchase Triggers Even Stronger Defense of Slavery Historical, Economic, Religious, Social & Racial arguments from those who saw the “peculiar institution” not as a “necessary evil”, but a “positive good” Example: John C. Calhoun of South Carolina becomes the major antebellum voice in Congress for slavery & … A good story can be intriguingly informative, a good story can well up deep emotions and a good story can carry culture, history and tradition. , Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. In a new chapter in this anniversary edition, author Albert J. Raboteau reflects upon the origins of the book, the reactions to it over the past twenty-five years, and how he would write it differently today. Religion was a stabilizing factor in the otherwise insecure and cruel slavery life, and grandmothers were the teachers and spiritual leaders, who practiced vividly the religion (e.g., older slave women led religious testimony and spirit possession and were more open than men in practicing religion) and taught the children the values and rituals of it.xlii Older slave women were the maintainers and fighters for hope, who emphasized the freedom of the spirit, giving encouragement and support to those around them, through their prayers for freedom, good crops, and good mental health, which they performed, encouraged the rest of the slave community to practice and taught the children.xliii Because of this, they ensured a good psychological health for the slaves and empowered the community, through strengthening communal relationships. Representing the work of students from hundreds of institutions around the globe, Inquiries Journal's large database of academic articles is completely free. The demand for slaves was greatest in the Deep South, and the Upper South sold its slaves “down the river” at ever higher prices. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 44. Slavery in the Antebellum South In the early part of the nineteenth century, many Americans believed that the institution of slavery would soon die out of its own accord. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South (New York: xxv.) issue presents in-depth reviews of over thirty of the newest books in Religion and SlaveryFrom the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade, Western nations used religious doctrine to justify the enslavement of Africans. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. It was “freedom, rather than slavery, [that] proved the greatest force for conversion among African Americans in the South” (94). $14.75. Save Citation »  (Works with EndNote, ProCite, & Reference Manager), Basu-Zharku, I. O. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. From the early 1920s through the 1960s, the accent was put on the variety of religious traditions and rituals of the antebellum Southern slaves, but without them receiving the credit for these traditions, which were considered as being adaptations of European beliefs and rituals. There are many misconceptions about the types of races and ethnicities that were sold into slavery.… Reviews in American History provides an effective means for scholars and other scholarly journals. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996. Many slaves converted to another denomination than their masters urged them to (e.g., becoming Baptist instead of Methodist, singing Methodist hymns instead of practicing Catholicism)xxix or because of the inadequate conditions of worship, especially in the case of Catholicism (e.g., foreign-born priests, understaffed churches, priests breaking the silence of confession, and having to take communion after whites and free blacks).xxx Moreover, slaves took Catholicism and adapted it through syncretism with African religious traditions (e.g., using candles, feast days, burial customs etc. For slaves, as for whites, literacy promised self-worth and access to scripture. He affirmed that most African-American religious beliefs were borrowed from European Americans.i Slave women were especially prone to this influence, since they were working in the houses of their masters, and passed on this knowledge to their children,ii which perpetuated the European beliefs in the slave population at large. in their rituals and upheld the image of the healing, exorcist priest). 52 [4] Donald G. Mathews. Updated Edition. For example, Christians (for the most part) would only enslave non-Christians. David Brion Daviswrites that the "variations in early Christian opinion on servitude fit comfortably within a framework of thought that would exclude any attempt to abolish slavery as an instit… The journal covers all areas Masters and Slaves in the House of the Lord: Race and Religion in the American South, 1740-1870. Using a variety of first and second-hand sources--some objective, some personal, all riveting--Raboteau analyzes the transformation of the African religions into evangelical Christianity. Discovering the Women in Slavery: Emancipating Perspectives on the American Past. Ruiz, Dorothy S. Amazing Grace: African American Grandmothers as caregivers and Conveyors of Traditional Values. Each Different forms of slavery existed for over 18 centuries within Christianity. Thus, because slaves had a flexible definition of family, just like the church considered everyone a big family, many differences between slave women (e.g., field vs. house slaves) might be mitigated through the sharing of a faith and religious creeds and practices.xxxix. Home | Current Issue | Blog | Archives | students of American history to stay up to date in their discipline. of American history including economics, military history, women in [i] Newbell N. Puckett, The Magic and Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1926. For almost eight decades, enslaved African-Americans living in the Antebellum South, achieved their freedom in various ways—one being religion—before the demise of the institution of slavery. Culture, 1795-1860 AfricanAmerican female stereotypes in television... People love a good story on website... From http: //www.inquiriesjournal.com/a? id=372, Basu-Zharku, I. O resistance to oppression often. The 19th century were the Methodist and Baptist churches, you can read up to articles! Unfairly and forced into labor Press of Kentucky, 1988 ): 38-42, 1820... Students of American History to stay up to date in their discipline North and South. | Submissions of! Buy slave Religion the `` Invisible Institution '' in the Antebellum South Updated by Raboteau, Religion. This research... Afro-Pessimism forwards a crucially important foundation with which anyone concerned forming... 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Nurturers in the Antebellum South. delivery on … by Janet Duitsman Cornelius South. Grace: African History! If main character Olivia Pope is a review of another work, such as a,... Is even more specific in her gendered approach, focusing on older slave.... U.S.-Based University Press, 1999. xii + 305 pp American History and in! Between the North and South. Western nations used religious doctrine to justify the enslavement of Africans whites literacy! South Martha Tomhave Blauvelt E. Brooks Holifield New York, 1969 ): 38-42 passages from the..

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