demographic characteristics of middle colonies

Summarize the demography of early 18th-century New England and Pennsylvania. Laborers stood at the bottom of seaport society. Education was widespread in the northern colonies, which had established colleges led by Harvard College, College of New Jersey (Princeton), and Yale College, while the College of William and Mary trained the elite in Virginia. 1. Learn middle colonies settlement with free interactive flashcards. In many ways, the middle colonies served as the crossroads of ideas during the colonial period. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. Three rivers -- Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson -- tapped fur trade in the interior. As time went on, many new immigrants ended up on the frontiers because of the cheaper availability of land. Common Characteristics The Middle Colonies were more diverse than colonies in New England and the South. Demographic changes resulted in shift in the balance of power between the colonies and England. By 1775, Germans constituted about one-third of the population of the state. Southern colonies were made up of a mix of indentured servants, wealthy elite, and slaves from Africa. Select all that apply. Which are some characteristics of the Middle Colonies? Demographic history of the United States. Many in New England also based their lifestyle on the sea and became merchants or fishermen. Virginia 447,016 2. Families tended to be large, and childbearing could be dangerous prior to advancements in medicine and health care. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLTING BLACK BRANT NEAR TESHEKPUK LAKE, ALASKA KAREN S. BOLLINGER AND DIRK V. DERKSEN National Biological Service Alaska Science Center 1011 East Tudor Road Anchorage, Alaska 99503 USA Abstract.-Molting Brant (Branta bernicla) in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska were studied from 1987 to … Land was generally acquired more easily than in New England or in the plantation South. However, numerous religious groups, especially the Puritans in New England, established tax-supported elementary schools so their children could learn to read the Bible. The 13 Colonies by population in 1770 As the Revolution approached, this is how the Colonies ranked in size. By 1776, about 85% of the white population in the British colonies was of English, Irish, Scottish, or Welsh descent, with 9% of German origin and 4% Dutch. Agricultural Differences . These religiously-affiliated schools may be reflective of the fact that New Englanders wrote journals, pamphlets, books, and especially sermons—more than all of the other colonies combined. Education in the colonial era was primarily the responsibility of families. Deism, a broad religious system that stresses morality, gave rise to Unitarianism. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. Deism stressed morality and rejected the orthodox Christian view of the divinity of Christ, often viewing him as a sublime, but entirely human, teacher of morality. A) The Chesapeake and North Carolina colonies grew prosperous exporting tobacco — a labor-intensive product initially cultivated by white, mostly male indentured servants and later by enslaved Africans. Most colonial cities were seaports. -Known for its large population of Quakers. The middle colonies were not as successful as the New England colonies, but they concentrated on their ports as the major source of economic developments (“Climate of the Three Colonies” par. This coupled with religious freedom gave more options to immigrants who were migrating from Europe. Later groups of Mennonites came to North America from Switzerland, Prussia, the Ukraine, and Russia. Seventeenth-century rates, beginning from a low base and more influenced by immigration, were even higher. It created a religious and ethnic pluralism that attracted immigrants from all over Europe. (A Second Great Awakening would take place in the 1800s.) Many of these mid-Atlantic immigrants were limited to occupations as small-scale farmers and artisans. 1700: less than 300,000 people; 2.5 million by 1775 (20% black) b. Methodism spread along the east coast during the years leading up to the American Revolution. Characteristics of the Southern Colonies. Family farms were owned Southern Colonies Social Structure New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies 1880: Religious meetinghouses were important centers of community life in the colonies. A. Demographic Characteristics of Intra-EU Movers. Three rivers -- Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson -- tapped fur trade in the interior. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives almost never worked in the fields with their husbands. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors. Massachusetts 235,808 4. Many great men would come from the Middle Colonies. European travelers in the colonies were fairly numerous, and, fortunately for us, many of them were observant men who published their impressions. This was partly due to the haphazard manner in which these colonies were populated, with many settlers spread throughout the colonies on small family farms. I. Characteristics of Middle Colonies. Every male citizen had a voice in the town meeting. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. Middle Colonies - Government Used many different democratic principles that … The Moravians, like John and Charles Wesley, arrived in America in 1735. Most of these settlers were male immigrants from England who died soon after their arrival. Development A large middle class is a defining feature of a developed country. They settled in small villages, many for common religious activities, and Puritans initially dominated the region. No single church or religion dominated in the Middle Colonies. a. Contrasts Between the North and the South . BY: HYSTORIAN VIVIANE HARLE 2. The Middle and Northern colonies differed considerably in their geographical aspects, leading to dissimilar social and political features. Harvard University, founded by Congregationalists, became a source of Unitarian training. Colonies such as Pennsylvania and Delaware had more farming. They all had a common goal, which was to govern themselves and have a say in how they were represented. Large farmers and merchants became wealthy, while farmers with smaller farms and artisans only made enough for subsistence. By 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people after an influx of German, Swiss, and Irish immigrants. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours. Old Ship Church, Hingham, Massachusetts, ca. The demographic characteristics and consequences of dispersal were studied in a population of Peromyscus leucopus with an extensive system of live-trapping grids. The North American colonies that were settled by the English are often divided into three different groups: the New England colonies, the Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies. Seventeenth-century rates, beginning from a low base and more influenced by immigration, were even higher. To decide which region was the best, I have chosen three factors to focus … While the private sector financed the companies, the King provided each project with a charter or grant conferring economic rights and political and judicial authority. Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. They were divided into three groups. In the north, many colonists lived on small, self-sufficient farms and enjoyed a fairly high level of education and personal liberty. New Netherland, founded in 1624 at Fort Orange (now Albany) by the Dutch West India Company, was but one element in a wider program of Dutch expansion in the first half of the 17th century. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. The middle colonies’ settlements were scattered west of New York City and Philadelphia. The middle colonies were known as the breadbasket colonies because a lot of grain was grown there. Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn, is an excellent example of a proprietary colony. German and Dutch immigrants granted women more control over property, which was not permitted in the local English law. The colonies that were the most specialized in the production of goods, such as sugar and coffee, relied the most heavily on slaves. The Moravians were deeply involved with the religious use of music. High-level politicians gave out plots of land to male settlers, or proprietors, who then divided the land amongst themselves. New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, the "middle colonies" of the original thirteen British colonies, were characterized by greater religious toleration and greater ethnic and religious diversity than their neighbors to north and south. Use Picture Stories for discussion starters. Over 90% were farmers, with several small cities that were also seaports linking the colonial economy to the larger British Empire. These shipyards were aided by cheap wood sold by merchants who exploited the vast amounts of timber along the coasts and rivers of northern New England. The middle colonies which comprised of New York, Delaware, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the soil and climate in the regions were suitable for agricultural practices. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch poltroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. The middle class included skilled workers and farmers. Excellent land for farming: region became known as the "bread colonies" for exports of grain; also fruits and vegetables. By 1715, South Carolina had a black majority because of the number of slaves in the colony. In what way did the region of the Middle Colonies help establish one of the defining characteristics of our nation? These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. The Middle Colonies shared the fertile land of the Southern Colonies and many large fields of wheat could be found and they shared the industry of timber and fishing. Whereas demography is a descriptive and predictive science, demographics is an applied art and science. New England was settled by a highly educated, agricultural demographic, and its population grew rapidly due to favorable weather conditions that kept disease low. The Southern Colonies were economically dominated by the wealthy planters in Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, even though much of the population of the south consisted of enslaved Africans. Nonetheless, the Great Awakening touched the lives of thousands on both sides of the Atlantic and provided a shared experience in the 18th-century British Empire. They could not divorce, and even single women could not make contracts, or sue anyone or be sued, at least until the late 18th century. DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF WHITE SERVITUDE IN COLONIAL BRITISH AMERICA. Characteristics of Colonial Regions: Middle Colonies •Geography & Economy –Good Land to be Cleared, Three Major Rivers (Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna), Good Harbors –“Breadbasket” of the Colonies, trade in foodstuffs, including the Triangle Trade •Demographics –1700: Twice as many people lived in New England than the Middle Colonies They first settled in Georgia, then moved to Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Unlike English colonial wives, German and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were also given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage. Slavery developed quickly in the Carolinas, largely because so many of the early migrants came from Barbados, where slavery was well established. Each region had things that they were good at and things that they were not good at. 2 0 obj However, with extremely cheap land prices, many Protestants moved to Maryland and soon became a majority of the population. The town meeting levied taxes, built roads, and elected officials who managed town affairs. %��������� Before 1720, most colonists in the mid-Atlantic region worked with small-scale farming and paid for imported manufactures by supplying the West Indies with corn and flour. Georgia was envisioned by its founder, General Oglethorpe, as a colony which would serve as a haven for English subjects who had been imprisoned for debt–essentially a province for the resettlement of “the worthy poor.” Oglethorpe banned alcohol, disagreed with slavery, and thought a system of smallholdings more appropriate than the large plantations common in the colonies to the north. Most of the colonies were slow to make profits, however, and the English investors often turned over their colonial charters to the settlers. stream The middle colonies were the Delaware Colony, the New Jersey Colony, the New York Colony, and the Pennsylvania Colony.Their climate helped them become the 'breadbasket' of British North America. Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, the Carolinas and Georgia were all founded by Englishmen, settled by people of English descent and remained under English control throughout the colonial period. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. New England In the New England colonies, settlers went there for religious freedom. Less aristocratic than NE or Southern colonies (NY was the exception) Shipbuilding, lumber, shipping, commerce all key industries Public schooling was rare outside New England. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://cnx.org/contents/p7ovuIkl@3.30:ZC7sZcO-@3/Charles-II-and-the-Restoration, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Colonies, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Georgia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia#Colony, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_history_of_the_United_States%23Earlier_Colonial_era, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Philadelphia, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/New_England, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Penn_at_22_1666.jpg, http://www.boundless.com//u-s-history/definition/maryland-experiment, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/US_History/Colonial_Religion, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_religion_in_the_United_States%23Eighteenth_century, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roger_Williams_statue_by_Franklin_Simmons.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_history_of_the_United_States%23Colonial_life, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/yeoman%20farmers, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/freehold%20ownership, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PewsOldShip.jpeg. 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